Padatious Intents

Padatious is a machine-learning, neural-network based intent parser. Unlike Adapt, which uses small groups of unique words, Padatious is trained on the sentence as a whole.

Padatious has a number of key benefits over other intent parsing technologies.

  • With Padatious, Intents are easy to create

  • The machine learning model in Padatious requires a relatively small amount of data

  • Machine learning models need to be trained. The model used by Padatious is quick and easy to train.

  • Intents run independently of each other. This allows quickly installing new skills without retraining all other skill intents.

  • With Padatious, you can easily extract entities and then use these in Skills. For example, "Find the nearest gas station" -> { "place":"gas station"}

Creating Intents

Padatious uses a series of example sentences to train a machine learning model to identify an intent.

The examples are stored in a Skill's vocab/lang or local/lang directory, in files ending in the file extension .intent. For example, if you were to create a tomato Skill to respond to questions about a tomato, you would create the file

vocab/en-us/what.is.a.tomato.intent

This file would contain examples of questions asking what a tomato is.

what would you say a tomato is
what is a tomato
describe a tomato
what defines a tomato

These sample phrases do not require punctuation like a question mark. We can also leave out contractions such as "what's", as this will be automatically expanded to "what is" by Mycroft before the utterance is parsed.

Each file should contain at least 4 examples for good modeling.

The above example allows us to map many phrases to a single intent, however often we need to extract specific data from an utterance. This might be a date, location, category, or some other entity.

Defining entities

Let's now find out Mycroft's opinion on different types of tomatoes. To do this we will create a new intent file: vocab/en-us/do.you.like.intent

with examples of questions about mycroft's opinion about tomatoes:

are you fond of tomatoes
do you like tomatoes
what are your thoughts on tomatoes
are you fond of {type} tomatoes
do you like {type} tomatoes
what are your thoughts on {type} tomatoes

Note the {type} in the above examples. These are wild-cards where matching content is forwarded to the skill's intent handler.

Specific Entities

In the above example, {type} will match anything. While this makes the intent flexible, it will also match if we say something like Do you like eating tomatoes?. It would think the type of tomato is eating which doesn't make much sense. Instead, we can specify what type of things the {type} of tomato should be. We do this by defining the type entity file here:

vocab/en-us/type.entity

which might contain something like:

red
reddish
green
greenish
yellow
yellowish
ripe
unripe
pale

Now, we can say things like Do you like greenish red tomatoes? and it will tag type as: greenish red.

Number matching

Let's say you are writing an Intent to call a phone number. You can make it only match specific formats of numbers by writing out possible arrangements using # where a number would go. For example, with the following intent:

Call {number}.
Call the phone number {number}.

the number.entity could be written as:

+### (###) ###-####
+## (###) ###-####
+# (###) ###-####
(###) ###-####
###-####
###-###-####
###.###.####
### ### ####
##########

Entities with unknown tokens

Let's say you wanted to create an intent to match places:

Directions to {place}.
Navigate me to {place}.
Open maps to {place}.
Show me how to get to {place}.
How do I get to {place}?

This alone will work, but it will still get a high confidence with a phrase like "How do I get to the boss in my game?". We can try creating a .entity file with things like:

New York City
#### Georgia Street
San Francisco

The problem is, now anything that is not specifically a mix of New York City, San Francisco, or something on Georgia Street won't match. Instead, we can specify an unknown word with :0. This would would be written as:

:0 :0 City
#### :0 Street
:0 :0

Now, while this will still match quite a lot, it will match things like "Directions to Baldwin City" more than "How do I get to the boss in my game?"

NOTE: Currently, the number of :0 words is not fully taken into consideration so the above might match quite liberally, but this will change in the future.

Parentheses Expansion

Sometimes you might find yourself writing a lot of variations of the same thing. For example, to write a skill that orders food, you might write the following intent:

Order some {food}.
Order some {food} from {place}.
Grab some {food}.
Grab some {food} from {place}.

Rather than writing out all combinations of possibilities, you can embed them into one or more lines by writing each possible option inside parentheses with | in between each part. For example, that same intent above could be written as:

(Order | Grab) some {food}
(Order | Grab) some {food} from {place}

or even on a single-line:

(Order | Grab) some {food} (from {place} | )

Nested parentheses are supported to create even more complex combinations, such as the following:

(Look (at | for) | Find) {object}.

Which would expand to:

Look at {object}
Look for {object}
Find {object}

There is no performance benefit to using parantheses expansion. When used appropriately, this syntax can be much clearer to read. However more complex structures should be broken down into multiple lines to aid readability and reduce false utterances being included in the model. Overuse can even result in the model training timing out, rendering the Skill unusable.

Using it in a Skill

The intent_handler\(\) decorator can be used to create a Padatious intent handler by passing in the filename of the .intent file as a string.

From our first example above, we created a file vocab/en-us/what.is.a.tomato.intent. To register an intent using this file we can use:

@intent_handler('what.is.a.tomato.intent')

This decorator must be imported before it is used:

from mycroft import intent_handler

Now we can create our Tomato Skill:

from mycroft import MycroftSkill, intent_file_handler
class TomatoSkill(MycroftSkill):
def __init__(self):
super().__init__()
@intent_handler('what.is.a.tomato.intent')
def handle_what_is(self, message):
self.speak_dialog('tomato.description')
@intent_handler('do.you.like.intent')
def handle_do_you_like(self, message):
tomato_type = message.data.get('type')
if tomato_type is not None:
self.speak_dialog('like.tomato.type',
{'type': tomato_type})
else:
self.speak_dialog('like.tomato.generic')
def stop(self):
pass
def create_skill():
return TomatoSkill()

See a Padatious intent handler example in the Hello World Skill